- Plural of slaughterhouse
A slaughterhouse, also called an abattoir (from the French verb abattre, "to strike down"), is a facility where animals are killed and processed into meat products. The animals most commonly slaughtered for food are cattle (for beef and veal), sheep (for lamb and mutton), pigs (for pork), horses (for horsemeat), and fowl, largely chickens, turkeys, and ducks.
In the United States, around ten billion animals are slaughtered every year in 5,700 slaughterhouses and processing plants employing 527,000 workers; in 2007, 28.1 billion pounds of beef were consumed in the U.S. alone. In Canada, 650 million are killed annually. In the European Union, the annual figure is 300 million cattle, sheep, and pigs, and four billion chickens.
Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant logistical problems and public health concerns, with public aversion to meat packing in many cultures influencing the location of slaughterhouses. In addition, some religions stipulate certain conditions for the slaughter of animals so that practices within slaughterhouses vary.
There has been criticism of the methods of preparation, herding, and killing within slaughterhouses, and in particular of the speed with which the slaughter is conducted. Investigations by animal welfare and animal rights groups have indicated that a proportion of animals are being skinned or gutted while alive and apparently conscious. There has also been criticism of the methods of transport of the animals, who are driven for hundreds of miles to slaughterhouses in conditions that often result in crush injuries and death en route.
Slaughterhouses act as the starting point of the meat industry, where stock come from farms/market to enter the food chain. They have existed as long as there have been settlements too large for individuals to rear their own stock for personal consumption.
Early maps of London show numerous stockyards in the periphery of the city, where slaughter occurred in the open air. A term for such open-air slaughterhouse is a shambles. There are streets named "The Shambles" in some English towns (e.g. Worcester, York) which got their name from having been the site on which butchers killed and prepared animals for consumption.
Open-air slaughter inside cities produced very substantial concerns about public health, morals, and aesthetics. This antipathy towards slaughterhouses is mentioned at least as early as the 16th century, in Thomas More's Utopia. In the 19th and 20th century, slaughterhouses were increasingly sited away from the public view, and took pains to portray themselves as clean, innocuous businesses. In this they have been responding not only to increasing regulation, but also to public sentiment. Most Westerners find the subject of animal slaughter to be unpleasant and prefer not to know the details of what goes on inside a slaughterhouse. As such, in the West, the connection between packaged meat products in the supermarket and the live animals from which they are derived is obscured.
In the latter half of the 20th century, the layout and design of most U.S. slaughterhouses has been significantly influenced by the work of Dr. Temple Grandin. It was her fascination with patterns and flow that first led her to redesign the layout of cattle holding pens.
Grandin's primary objective was to reduce the stress and suffering of animals being led to slaughter. In particular she applied an intuitive understanding of animal psychology to design pens and corrals which funnel a herd of animals arriving at a slaughterhouse into a single file ready for slaughter. Her corrals employ long sweeping curves so that each animal is prevented from seeing what lies ahead and just concentrates on the hind quarters of the animal in front of it. This design also takes advantage of the animal's instinct to return from the direction it came from.
Grandin now claims to have designed over 54 percent of the slaughterhouses in the United States as well as many other slaughterhouses around the world.
ProcessThe slaughterhouse process differs by species and region and may be controlled by civil law as well as religious laws such as Kosher and Halal laws. A typical procedure follows:
- Cows are received by truck or rail from a ranch, farm, or feedlot.
- Cows are herded into holding pens.
- Cows receive a preslaughter inspection.
- Cows are usually knocked unconscious by applying an electric shock of 300 volts and 2 amps to the back of the head, effectively stunning the animal. If unsuccessful, secondary methods include the use of a captive bolt pistol to the front of the cow's head. Livestock are also rendered unconscious by pneumatic or cartridge-fired captive bolt stunning and CO2/inert gas stunning. (This step is prohibited under strict application of Halal and Kashrut codes.)
- Animals are hung upside down by one of their hind legs on the processing line.
- The main arteries and veins are severed with a knife, mainly in the neck, and the cow's blood drains, causing death through exsanguination.
- The hide/skin/plumage is removed by down pullers, side pullers and fisting off the pelt (sheep and goats)
- The internal organs are removed and inspected for internal parasites and signs of disease. The guts, referred to as viscera, are separated for inspection from the heart and lungs, referred to as the "pluck." Livers are separated for inspection, tongues are dropped or removed from the head, and the head is sent down the line on the head hooks or head racks for inspection.
- The carcass is inspected by a government inspector for safety. (This inspection is performed by the Food Safety Inspection Service in the U.S., and CFIA in Canada.)
- Carcasses are subjected to intervention to reduce levels of bacteria. Common interventions are steam, hot water, and organic acids. Carcasses are chilled to prevent the growth of microorganisms and to reduce meat deterioration while the meat awaits distribution.
- The chilled carcass is broken down into subprimals and primals for boxed meat unless customer specifies for swinging sides of meat. Beef and horse carcasses are always split in half and then quartered, pork is split into sides only and goat/veal/mutton and lamb is left whole
- The remaining carcass may be further processed to extract any residual traces of meat, usually termed mechanically recovered meat, which may be used for human or animal consumption.
- Waste materials such as lard or tallow, are sent to a rendering plant.
- The waste water, consisting of blood and fecal matter, generated by the slaughtering process is sent to a waste water treatment plant.
- The meat is transported to distribution centers that then distribute to retail markets.
International variationsThe standards and regulations governing slaughterhouses vary considerably around the world. In many countries the slaughter of animals is regulated by custom and tradition rather than by law. In the non-Western world, including the Arab world, the Indian sub-continent, etc., both forms of meat are available: one which is produced in modern mechanized slaughterhouses, and the other from local butcher shops.
In some communities animal slaughter may be controlled by religious laws, most notably halal for Muslims and kashrut for Jewish communities. These both require that the animals being slaughtered should be conscious at the point of death, and as such animals cannot be stunned prior to killing. This can cause conflicts with national regulations when a slaughterhouse adhering to the rules of kosher preparation is located in some Western countries.
In many societies, traditional cultural and religious aversion to slaughter led to prejudice against the people involved. In Japan, where the ban on slaughter of livestock for food was lifted only in the late 19th century, the newly found slaughter industry drew workers primarily from villages of burakumin, who traditionally worked in occupations relating to death (such as executioners and undertakers). In some parts of western Japan, prejudice faced by current and former residents of such areas (burakumin "hamlet people") is still a sensitive issue. Because of this, even the Japanese word for "slaughter" (屠殺 tosatsu) is deemed politically incorrect by some pressure groups as its inclusion of the kanji (Chinese symbol) for "kill" (殺) supposedly portrays those who practice it in a negative manner.
Some countries have laws that exclude specific animal species or grades of animal from being slaughtered for human consumption, especially those that are taboo food. The former Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee suggested in 2004 introducing legislation banning the slaughter of cows throughout India, as Hinduism holds cows as sacred and considers their slaughter unthinkable and offensive (N.B. only two of the federal states of India ban cow slaughter). The slaughter of cows and the importation of beef into the nation of Nepal are strictly forbidden. Several U.S. states have banned the slaughter and consumption of dogs. The sale and consumption of horse meat is illegal in Illinois and California, although horses are slaughtered for meat export to Europe and Japan for human consumption and for the U.S. pet food market.
LawMost countries have laws in regard to the treatment of animals at slaughterhouses. In the United States, there is the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958, a law requiring that all swine, sheep, cattle, and horses be stunned unconscious with just one application of a stunning device by a trained person before being shackled and hoisted up on the line (chickens are exempt from this Act). The USDA is opposed to the Humane Slaughter Act, and violations of the Act carry no penalties. Since stopping the line to re-knock conscious animals causes "down time" and results in fewer profits, the Humane Slaughter Act is usually bypassed and ignored by USDA supervisors . There is some debate over the enforcement of this act. This act, like those in many countries, exempts slaughter in accordance to religious law, such as kosher shechita and dhabiĥa halal. Most strict interpretations of kashrut require that the animal be fully sensible when its carotid artery is cut.
The novel The Jungle detailed unsanitary conditions in slaughterhouses and the meatpacking industry during the 1800s, leading to the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, which established the Food and Drug Administration. A much larger body of regulation deals with the public health and worker safety regulation and inspection.
Major slaughterhousesThe largest slaughterhouse in the world is operated by the Smithfield Packing Company in Tar Heel, North Carolina. It is capable of butchering over 32,000 pigs a day. The Dutch Stork Food Systems is the world largest manufacturer of chicken slaughtering installations with an annual turnover of € 149m.
- Slaughterhouse designer Temple Grandin's official site detailing her design principles, as well as many of the regulations affecting slaughter in the United States.
- Pig slaughtering process
- Poultry slaughtering process
- Search slaughterhouses in Canada
- Sustainable slaughtering issues
slaughterhouses in German: Schlachthof
slaughterhouses in Spanish: matadero
slaughterhouses in French: Abattoir
slaughterhouses in Indonesian: Rumah jagal
slaughterhouses in Luxembourgish: Schluechthaus
slaughterhouses in Dutch: Slachterij
slaughterhouses in Japanese: と畜場
slaughterhouses in Polish: Rzeźnia
slaughterhouses in Portuguese: Abatedouro
slaughterhouses in Serbian: Кланица
slaughterhouses in Finnish: Teurastamo
slaughterhouses in Swedish: Slakteri
slaughterhouses in Chinese: 屠宰场